I agree with what others have said here and unfortunately I don't think you will find what you are looking for.
1 & 2 - Android is designed to sync with Google. It isn't designed specifically to sync with anything else. The sync happens with Google mail and calendar for your contacts and appointments. I'm not aware of a linux program that will do a sync with the phone, but there may be one out there or someone could write one. The only thing that I have seen for linux that does any type of syncing with Android is Banshee
, but I think it is more for media.
This may also help explain some things:
can you sync android phone with linux? - Google Mobile Help
3 - You don't really flash the phone from a computer with Android, you flash the phone from the SD card.
4 - The only phone that comes to mind (top of my head here) is the Sprint EVO for this one. I know there is at least one other phone with a front facing camera out there, but can't remember which one it is.