Are you getting "????????? no permissions" or just no devices listed?
If nothing is listed after "List of devices attached", This would mean that linux can see your phone plugged into the usb but adb can either not see or is not recognizing it. This will happen if you missed the first step of #2 and your phone is not in USB debugging mode. It will also happen if your phone is in Download mode. It should be in regular phone mode but with USB debugging checked under apps/development. There should be a red triangle with an exclamation point in it on your phone's status bar. First post edited to make this clearer.
If you are getting the error "??????? no permissions", Adb probably is not running as root on your computer. We know you have phone permissions from the "ls -l /dev/bus/usb/001/002" output.
You are correct that "adb devices" should be ran as "sudo adb devices" the first time you run adb. Adb should automatically run as root after the first time, but getting it to run as root that first time can be tricky. First post edited to include this.
The only thing I see different on your "lsusb" output is the "Galaxy Portal/Spica Android Phone" listed at the end after "Ltd". With the Fascinate in regular mode, there is nothing listed after "Ltd". If I put the Fascinate in download mode, I get "Z100 Mobile Phone" after the "Ltd". First post edited to show my full "lsusb" output.