This is the message I always get when connecting my HTC EVO 4G to my Windows Vista Fujitsu Tablet T5010 via USB cable:
"One of the USB devices attached to this computer has malfunctioned, and Windows does not recognize it."
I've tried selecting each of the four options in "Connect to PC" settings on my phone as well as all of the methods mentioned above in this thread. The USB cable is not the problem, as I've tried connecting my phone via the same cable to my friend's computer, which is a Mac if that's worth mentioning, and when I connect it to his computer, it works fine.
For whatever reason, the cable just won't work with my computer. However, I have come up with an alternative. I bought microSD adapters (made by Kingston). Now instead of just plugging my phone in via USB cable, I unmount my SD card from my phone, turn off my phone, take out the SD card from my phone, put the SD card in the adapter, and then put the adapter in computer. This takes much longer than just plugging in a USB cable, but it now allows me to transfer files from my phone and my computer. When I am done, I put my SD card back in my phone and turn my phone back on for use.