Alright then, I'm not sure what's up here. It's just strange that Airdroid will recognize the sd card for one thing but yet it doesn't even show up as a storage device. And it won't recognize the internal memory but it sounds like Astro MIGHT be doing so, I'm not sure that you specified. At first, I thought maybe the internal storage may not be mounting but if you can see it with a file manager, that doesn't seem plausible.
The only idea I have left it to try a factory reset on the phone. Which is a somewhat common necessity after an over the air update for some phones/updates in particular. But what bothers me about that is you have 2 phones exhibiting the same behavior on 2 machines and having used multiple usb cables and multiple driver utilities.
It's all I have left for now though. I'm gonna sleep on it and check back in tomorrow. Really pulling for you man, this is frustrating I know.