In iOS, see if there is a way to export your contacts to some file. It might be in iCloud. You want to try to export to a .vcf file format (address cards) or even a .csv (command delimited) format. I'm not familiar enough with iOS to know exactly how it is done. You may want to ask about this in an Apple forum (like MacRumors) if no one here knows.
Once you get your contacts in one of these formats, you should be able to import them into your Gmail account. Android phones require a Google account which is a Gmail account. Once they are in this account, it should sync to your phone. Ensure that you enable syncing to your Gmail account on your phone's contact app.