I fired up my copy of Calibre to have a look, and I couldn't see an option to rename a book. There is an "edit metadata" option, but that that just changes the details stored inside the .epub file. It doesn't change the file name. If I've missed something talk me through how you're renaming the book in Calibre and I'll have a play.
Re the Adobe Digital editions, I note the current version is 2.something while mine is 1.7.2. I wonder if Adobe have managed to break something in the curent version. Unfortunately I don't have the installer for the earlier version lying around anywhere otherwise I'd mail it to you.