With Android Beam, if you're running an app and touch another phone, it'll open that app or take take it to the Store to get it.
You can share contacts and photos.
You can make another phone open the same YouTube vid you're watching.
Samsung's s-beam will share about sort of file, but it's proprietary to Samsung.
To share anything to anything in a standard fashion, consider using a Bluetooth sharing app. (Personally, I share between our phones using FTP. It's harder to use and set up if you've not done much of it, but I started on that years back and it works for me.)
Android Beam can help the other phone over to the Store to get a comparable app.
NFC is also very cool for using NFC tags. Hang them on your keychain, sticker them by the door, use a simple setup program so that when your phone touches the tag, it changes into car mode, your home settings, whatever works for you.