Without visibility, you're limited to what's available on the internal and external SD cards. It's near impossible to navigate menus blindly and I don't know if any remote viewing apps are zero-config setups from the Play Store.
You can try to use Samsung Kies, but this software is so temperamental, it is sometimes not worth the headache. Install it and make sure to install the drivers when prompted. Exit Kies, connect the phone (fully booted) and wait for the PC to "install new hardware". If done and correctly detected, the phone will appear in your Devices list. Then launch Kies and it will often detect the phone without issue.
Judging from your frantic post, you also didn't set up any auto-backup/sync accounts, which as annoying as they may seem, are the best thing with current gen smartphones. Even Lookout needs the phone to set up photo, call log, and contact backups as well as remotely lock or wipe before the web can do anything more than locate. The same goes for Google's recently released Android Device Manager.
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If it ain't broke, use a sledge hammer.