Charging an S4.
This problem cropped up with the 4.3 update. It comes up because of the way Samsung implemented the latest HDMI Spec of the charger cable. Couple ways around it.
1. Reboot. All Chargers work.
2. Plug the charger into the phone. Then the power source. Works most of the time.
3. Charge the phone while it's off.
The good news is the latest patch. 4.3 MK2.
Seems to have solved the issue. Mine again works with all Chargers perfectly.