You could be right about the driver. But it might be my cable after all. I found an explanation that pointed out the fifth conductor on the micro USB. I suspect the voltage/signal on that conductor is what is causing the issue. When I plug it into a wall wart, the phone turns itself on if it's off, and then acts like it's not charging.
Meanwhile, I came across some case discussions, and decided to grab a Trident Cyclops case (Trident Case - Motorola Moto X
). The red one is $11 bucks at Amazon (retail $40), and it has good reviews for being tough enough but not too bulky (compared to their multi-layer Kraken AMS).
Update: I used a different cord and it installed drivers and charged just fine. It's something about the other cord, which is actually quite a nice one with Velcro and everything. Guess it's just too good for me.