I found the source of the error, but my email still refuses to sync (just constantly refreshes).
If anyone receives this error, this was the problem in my case:
Under Accounts & Synchronization, Exchange ActiveSync was enabled, but somehow (I certainly did not do this), under Exchange ActiveSync, Email was unchecked...
Additionally, a Google Apps account I have is not syncing at all. I can send email from the email address, but absolutely nothing is in the inbox. I setup this mailbox manually, and it "worked" setting it up. I tried adding another google account, but every time I type in my login info, it sits at the "connecting to Google's servers" screen for a long time, then says I don't have a network connection, which I obviously do (full bars 3G, and optional WiFi) o_O.
I love the phone, but this is starting to get really frustrating, between not being able to mount it as a disk drive in Windows reliably (just doesn't show up), to not getting media to stream from the web (have to download every file), to email not working... I hope to have this resolved soon