Try exporting all events from Google Calendar on your laptop and then going into Settings>Applications>Manage applications>Calendar and clear its cache and data. Sync it with Google and if everything is deleted from Google instead of being downloaded to your phone, restore it and try again, but it should re-sync everything.
Also make sure there is no setting anywhere on your phone not to sync old/ future etc., events.
Make sure you have the right calendar checked in Accounts under settings too.
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