The "Linux questions (and other stuff)" thread

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  1. palmtree5

    palmtree5 Sunny Vacation Supporter! Moderator

    sudo mkdir /opt

    That should work

  2. MoodyBlues

    MoodyBlues - Crazy peacock person -

    zuben, you're doing this the hard way! :) Please just give us a link to an actual file that you want to install, tell us where you want to install it, and we'll go from there.

    I can see from the things you're saying that the real problem is a lack of experience with, and knowledge about, Linux on your part. That's not a bad thing, at all. As I said earlier, we ALL have to start somewhere. It's just that what's happening is you're getting yourself more and more confused because certain things we're saying aren't matching up with the way your [personal] file system is laid out. Like the downloads directory. *I* never, ever, ever set up users to have their own ~/downloads or ~/Downloads directory. So those never exist on computers I set up. But they *DO* have a downloads location! As I've said, mine go in /data/downloads; I always partition my hard drive as follows:

    Code (Text):
    2. /
    3. /home
    4. /data
    5. swap
    So my downloads directory is in /data. YOURS could be anywhere or nowhere, depending on how you're set up. ANY directory [that you have write access to] can accept downloads--there's nothing magical about the name downloads. All we need to do is figure out where YOUR downloads are going--and that's easy! I promise. :D

    BTW, the "number sign" (actually "pound sign") is the $PS1 for root. Regular users' prompts are typically a $, while root's prompt is typically #. As with all things *nix, this can be changed, but that's sort of the de facto standard.
    EarlyMon likes this.
  3. palmtree5

    palmtree5 Sunny Vacation Supporter! Moderator

    Why? My downloads directory is currently at ~/Downloads but most of the files there get moved anyway
  4. MoodyBlues

    MoodyBlues - Crazy peacock person -

    For global access. Any user can access files in /data/downloads. Any user can also choose NOT to download there, for example if they're downloading something they wouldn't want others to have access to. But since most downloads are things like software packages, updates, etc., it makes sense to let all users easily access them.
    palmtree5 likes this.
  5. palmtree5

    palmtree5 Sunny Vacation Supporter! Moderator

    Makes perfect sense :)
  6. zuben el genub

    zuben el genub Well-Known Member

    OK, I finally got it. Capitalization bit me. I got in the right folder, finally. I didn't extract FX since it already was.

    Installing and Maintaining Firefox ESR in Ubuntu / Linux *-*TuxGarage Close to the Mozilla page.

    I finally found some opt files but they were /, /etc, and /var. Just says location file system, no folder. The one marked / is root, but doesn't have a padlock on the folder.

    This is the line I can't do
    sudo tar -xvjf firefox-10.0.2.tar.bz2 -C /opt - nor will it let me drag or copy and paste. I tried to change this to 17.0.8 and got 10.0.2 anyway.

    Found this as to why ESR isn't readily available. There are plenty of us users both Win and Mac that simply don't like the fast release of FX. FX is trying to add social sites and other goodies for those too lazy to learn how to get there via bookmark. To get rid of the crap, you have to find all the files and change them in about:config which is a pain in the butt. ESR is for organizations that only need the security updates, not the damn social. Since FX is trying to compete with Chrome, there seems to be a new version in beta before the previous version is available for download. The bugs aren't always fixed, either.

    12.04 - Why is a LTS release not using the Extended Support Version of Thunderbird? - Ask Ubuntu (i'm having the same problem with Tbird.)

    I have to check things out for myself to see if I understand the nuances and processes before I blindly type something in. I do this with the phone, too. I apologize if it makes me a PITA.

    Once I get this straightened out I intend to print it out and stick it in the Hacks book.
  7. zuben el genub

    zuben el genub Well-Known Member

    OK, I'm reading both Moody and Palmtrees previous posts. In some cases Downloads is capitalized, and in others not. Mine seemed to want a capital D. What's the rule on this, please.

  8. EarlyMon

    EarlyMon The PearlyMon Moderator

    A UNIX White Paper from about 15 years ago defined the opt structure as the preferred installation strategy to try to straighten out the discrepancies between common practices for BSD vs. ATT UNIX.

    I've only seen it enforced in HP-UX, but I haven't seen everything.

    opt stands for optional - any software not in the original distribution.

    /etc (pronounced ET see) is where configuration data belongs.

    /var is the machine-specific area for data, variably sized and mounted by sysadmin.

    Therefore, on a well-behaved, conforming software package named, for example only, XYZ, we get the following directories -

    /opt/XYZ - the XYZ software

    /etc/opt/XYZ - all configuration/setup data for XYZ

    /var/opt/XYZ - data generated by running XYZ

    On a BSD system, /opt is the same as /usr/local/bin (bin is pronounced bine, as in binary, and not pronounced like a vegetable bin).

    There, some info for its own sake, hope it serves. :)
    MoodyBlues and zuben el genub like this.
  9. zuben el genub

    zuben el genub Well-Known Member

    What about capitalization?
  10. EarlyMon

    EarlyMon The PearlyMon Moderator

    All unix variants are case sensitive.

    Usually commands, whether built-in or added on, are lowercase to save on typing complexity.

    Software package names and their corresponding directories may be mixed case to reflect the product or vendor identity.
  11. zuben el genub

    zuben el genub Well-Known Member

    I didn't set up any directories. Downloads folder was in the home directory, so I used it.
    Seemed like a logical place to put stuff rather than the generic My Documents folder where Windows sticks everything. I did create a downloads folder on Windows.

    Then why didn't downloads work on the command until I used D instead of d?
  12. palmtree5

    palmtree5 Sunny Vacation Supporter! Moderator

    Files and folders are case sensitive (i.e. downloads is not the same as Downloads)
  13. EarlyMon

    EarlyMon The PearlyMon Moderator

    The standard environment variable describing the full path of your home directory is HOME. We access it by using the $ sign, that's the dereferencing operator. I can get to it or use it saying $HOME - or depending on the command, just saying ~ as mentioned earlier.

    On my very plain vanilla Ubuntu 12.04, Firefox downloads by default to -


    Unlike Windows, you can have a two subdirectories in the same place, one named downloads and the other named Downloads - they'll be as different as a dog and a cat because the os is case sensitive.

    Does that answer it? I don't want to answer at cross purposes to the real question, let me know.

    Edit - ninja'd :)
  14. Dngrsone

    Dngrsone Well-Known Member

    This is why Linux is viewed with awe and suspicion: too many ways to do the same thing.

    I can go to the same location on disk in several different ways--

  15. MoodyBlues

    MoodyBlues - Crazy peacock person -

    There's no place like:

    and, for good measure:

  16. palmtree5

    palmtree5 Sunny Vacation Supporter! Moderator

    Actually isn't the same as the other 4...
  17. MoodyBlues

    MoodyBlues - Crazy peacock person -

    I know. That's why it's separate. :p :laugh:

    (The idea is to say it as 'home'--"there's no place like...")
  18. palmtree5

    palmtree5 Sunny Vacation Supporter! Moderator

    I know :p :D :laugh:
    MoodyBlues likes this.
  19. MoodyBlues

    MoodyBlues - Crazy peacock person -

  20. zuben el genub

    zuben el genub Well-Known Member

    That was the confusion. I'd use (expletive deleted) to get around that in Windows. That's where my downloads go. I got confused with one of Moody's posts about not letting a user set up some kind of download file.

    Now if someone can help me fix that damn Opt file business so I can get ESR in. That's the last 2 problems. Then I can just leave stuff alone. I'll have the Vulcan mess with the speaker hardware. He can test it elsewhere.

    What is the difference in where a file runs? The older FX you could use the icon in the downloads folder and make a shortcut. Clicking on FX 17 icon does nothing in extracted file. Why would putting it elsewhere make it run?
    Does sticking it in the Opt file give it permission to run?

    I've gotten used to using Ubuntu for the secure stuff I need, rather than the 7 laptop.
  21. palmtree5

    palmtree5 Sunny Vacation Supporter! Moderator

    Try this:

    Open up a terminal and cd to the directory where the files were extracted to

    then type "ls -l" (without quotes) and post the output here
  22. EarlyMon

    EarlyMon The PearlyMon Moderator

    Directories have access permissions, similar but not identical to file permissions.

    If you want something to be available for all users, you don't want it in your home directory or under it.

    Anyway - what palmtree5 said, I'm just chiming in.
  23. MoodyBlues

    MoodyBlues - Crazy peacock person -

    :confused: I don't recall saying anything like that. Would you mind pointing me to where that was? :confused:

    As I've said [a few times], the solution has been provided but, for whatever reason(s), you're choosing not to do it. *shrug*
  24. Dngrsone

    Dngrsone Well-Known Member

    Well, with a little help from Rod Smith, I managed to get rEFInd to boot directly into Mint with Secure Boot enabled.

    I moved a copy of my vmlinuz and related files to the /boot/efi/EFI/linuxmint folder and then digitally signed the vmlinuz file using OpenSSL as instructed here.

    Then rEFInd can boot directly into Mint, bypassing grub and its attendant problems .
  25. MoodyBlues

    MoodyBlues - Crazy peacock person -

    Not exactly Linux related, but this doesn't need a thread of its own: MY OLD LAPTOP IS DYING!!

    Yep, my HP dv6000, which is almost 7 years old, is running hotter than hot. Like in scorching my hand hot.

    I've done absolutely no troubleshooting yet and, frankly, I'm not sure I'm going to. I don't really feel like repairing it, but I don't want to just toss it either, I mean if it's still salvageable. So I don't know. :confused: I guess I could take it apart and see what's what.

    It's purely an extra laptop, so its demise won't be the end of the world. I resurrected it by putting Bodhi Linux on it, and I'm not kidding that sucker flies! It's fast. You'd never know it's seven years old.



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