If you're using Linux and are comfortable sing the terminal (Command Line in Windows speak), you could use the dd command which does a bit-for-bit copy to the larger card. you cold then resize the (copied) partition using GParted. If it doesn't work (I've no idea if it would in practice, but it's reasonable to think it might), you've still got the original card.
A better strategy could be to connect the phone to a computer via USB and just copy off the content you want to keep folder at a time. then put the new card in the phone, format it as adoptable (internal) storage and copy stuff back from the computer. Again, no guarantees as I don't use a card formatted as internal storage.
It's generally not a good idea to use sd cards as internal storage as they will get written to much more often than if you just use one as removable storage, this can (and does) cause cards to fail much quicker than would otherwise be the case. If a card used as internal storage does fail, then you've just lost everything on it (apps and data). There's really no need to use cards in this way UNLESS your phone has very limited storage (<16GB )