I need to add a root certificate to Android systems. I hope to achieve this by copying the appropriate file the following path: /system/etc/security/cacerts, or using a flashable zip. Due to the fact that applications from Android version 7 and upwards no longer trust user-added CAs by default, I will need to do this to many tens of devices from multiple vendors. Possible methods: Rooting the devices Via a custom recovery Drawbacks: Rooting: I will need to separately find a method of rooting each device. There is no generic rooting method that will work for all devices. Custom recovery: I will need to obtain multiple customized TWRP (or other) recovery images, one for each device model. Not all devices have custom recovery images available. Is there an easier and more generic method to achieve my goal?