First, 10% isn't nearly enough. Second, after being plugged in CHARGING all night it was down to 0%? It said that it was charging? The phone was then turned off?
(Charging a phone that's turned on usually charges less that the current the phone is using, so you're killing the battery. It's a CHARGER, not an external power supply. It doesn't supply enough current for the phone to run, just to charge the battery. (A USB 2.0 connector can't supply enough current to run a phone.)
Turn the phone off, charge it at least all night, then see if it has any charge. If it does, keep it turned off and charge it until it says that charging is complete, or that you should unplug the charger.
(And it doesn't matter if you need the phone turned on all day and all night - buy a second battery and an external charger and swap batteries. A phone charger WILL NOT run the phone, it'll just supply 100ma to charge the battery, and the phone draws more than that to run. Phones with USB 3.0 charging ports can run on their chargers, if the chargers supply enough current, but there aren't that many phones with USB 3.0 ports.)